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Реферат: Mathematical Formulas for Calculation of Newtonian Constant of Gravitation G 
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Реферат: Mathematical Formulas for Calculation of Newtonian Constant of Gravitation GРеферат: Mathematical Formulas for Calculation of Newtonian Constant of Gravitation GHow Many Physical Constants are Truly Fundamental?Dr. Nikolay KosinovAnnotationTo main fundamental constants scientists usually refer gravitational constant (G), Planck constant (h) and speed of light (c). These constant are considered to be independent. Researches have shown, that truly fundamental are not constants G, h, c, but quite other constants [1, 2, 3, 4]. They are the following constants: 1. Fundamental quantum of action hu (hu=7,69558071(63) • 1037 J s). 2. Fundamental length lu (lu=2,817940285(31) • 1015 m). 3. Fundamental quantum of time tu (tu=0,939963701(11) • 1023 s). 4. Fine structure constant 5. Number All major fundamental physical constants are composed and consist of these five constant. These five constant have special status and are called "universal superconstants" [1, 2, 3, 4]. Are the major physical constants fundamental?To main fundamental constant scientists usually refer gravitational constant (G), Planck constant (h) and speed of light (c). These constant are considered to be independent. These physical constants have special status among other constant. It is confirmed by the fact, that in fundamental physics many scientists used the units system, in which these constants equal 1. They received a special importance after M.Plancks researches, who with the help of their combination discovered the units of mass, length and time, which were called "Planck units". Constants G, h, c and their different combinations are used in most important physical theories. For example, Newtonian theory of gravitation is Gtheory [11]. General theory of relativity is a classic (G, c)theory. Relative quantum theory of field is quantum (h, c)by theory [11]. Each of these theories operates by one or two dimensional constants. The discovery of Planck units v Planck length, mass and time  gave a hope, that it is possible to create a new quantum theory on the base of three constants G, h, c. But attempts to create a single quantum theory of electromagnetic fields, particles and gravitation on the base of three dimensional constants G, h, c were unsuccessful. This theory has not existed yet, although scientists showed promises of it [11]. Why did it happen? The reason is, that constants G, h, c can not be a constant base of quantum theory. In accordance with this fact a question arises, whether these constants can be considered primary and independent? Difficulties in creation of G, h, c theories object it. Obviously, other constant exist, which are both independent, and primary, and truly fundamental. Evidently, all basic physical constants should come of such primary constants, including constants G, h, c. Since primary status of constants G, h, c was out doubts for a long time, the task of search of ontological base of fundamental physical constant does not arise so sharp. Failures in creation of (G, h, c)theories and a big number of other fundamental physical constants, among which it is difficult to prefer one of them, bring forward s task of search of ontological base of physical constants. Contemporary physics accumulated already about 300 fundamental constants [6]. 300 constants and all are fundamental! Why such a big number of constants are considered to be fundamental? If we refer them to truly fundamental constants, it exists too much of them. If we accept a fact, that a single material essence makes a world base and all of physical phenomena should have a single nature, then amount of constants must be lesser. Here we remember Ockhams rule, according to which we should not multiply a number of essences without necessity, and also Fresnel opinion, that L the nature is disposed to operate by great things with the help of the little¦ [5, 8]. Therefore, if priority and independence of constants are criterions of true fundamentality, then just a little amount of constants should be considered to be truly fundamental. That is why, a deep contradiction exists in fact, that hundreds of constants have fundamental status. Our task is to find among them "truly fundamental constants" and reveal a number of them. Many facts indicate, that it is sufficient to have three dimensional constants as truly fundamental. However only three basic units  metre, kilogramme and second v are enough to receive all units, having mechanical nature. But unsuccessful attempts in creation of (G, h, c)theories show, that three constants are not enough. It means, that we should search the unknown number JF, which comply with a number of still unknown truly fundamental constant, should be searched somewhere between 3 and 300: 3 < JF <300. Ockhams principle shows, that we should search right answer of amount of truly fundamental constants nearby 3. The work has been published [12], and its author comes to the conclusion, that it must be 22 fundamental constants (JF=22). Beneath it will be shown, that their number is much less. We have to find out, whether number JF includes constants G, h, c. We have to find out also, what dimensionless constants can be referred to truly fundamental constants. Problem of fine structure constant (

Quantity  Symbol  Functional dependence 
Constant of gravitation  G 
G=f(hu,lu,tu, , ) 
Speed of light  c  c= f(lu,tu) 
Planck constant  H 
h= f(hu, , ) 
Elementary charge  Е  e=f(hu,lu,tu) 
Electron mass  me  me=f(hu,lu,tu) 
Rydberg constant 

=f(lu, , ) 
Protonelectron mass ratio  mp/me 
mp/me=f( , ) 
Hubble constant  H0 
H0 =f(tu, , ) 
Planck mass  mpl 
mpl=f(hu,lu,tu, , ) 
Planck length  lpl 
lpl=f(lu, , ) 
Planck time  tpl 
tpl=f(tu, , ) 
Magnetic flux quantum 

=f(hu,lu,tu, , ) 
Bohr magneton 

= f(hu,lu,tu, ) 
Researches have shown, that in base of practically all major physical constants these five universal superconstants
lie. So, known today family of physical constant assumes reduction to primary superconstant base, because it originates from this primary (hu, lu,
tu,
,
) basis:
As far as magnetic and electric constants do not have physical sense and their introduction is conditioned by only units system selection, physical and astrophysical constants assume reduction to five primary superconstants. Primary, ontological status of universal superconstants allows referring superconstants to separate class of fundamental physical constants. To my mind, we should include to list of fundamental physical constant a new paragraph: "Universal superconstants":
Universal superconstants  
Quantity  Symbol  Value  Unit  
1  Fundamental quantum  hu  7,69558071(63) • 1037  J s 
2  Fundamental length  lu  2,817940285(31) • 1015  m 
3  Fundamental time  tu  0,939963701(11) • 1023  s 
4  Fine structure constant 

7,297352533(27) • 103  
5  Pi 

3,141592653589... 
Emphasizing of special paragraph "Universal superconstants" can be substantiating by following considerations. Five
superconstants, included in superconstant basis, are primary constants. All other fundamental physical constants are compound constants and have secondary
status. They can be deduced on the base of primary superconstants hu, lu, tu,
,
. We can deduce by analytic computation practically all major fundamental physical
constants, using five superconstants. The author has received proper mathematical correlations for calculation of fundamental physical constant
values, using superconstants [1, 2, 3, 4]. To my mind, these five universal superconstants can substitute a big list of electromagnetic,
universal, atomic and nuclear constants and become a base of new physical theories of field, elementary particles and gravitation. More detailed
information of superconstants you can find on sites:
http://www.sciteclibrary.com/
www.photcoef.com/236.html
www.jsup.or.jp/shiryo/PDF/0900z53.pdf
http://www.rusnauka.narod.ru/
http://www.sciteclibrary.com/rus/catalog/pages/2017.html
http://www.nt.org/tp/ng/nfk.htm
Five superconstants (hu, lu, tu,
,
) are ontological basis of physical constants. It means, that physical constants
originate from five superconstants. All of five superconstants are independent. It is impossible to get dimensionless superconstants, using dimensional
superconstants. It is impossible to get dimensional superconstants, using dimensionless superconstants
The principles of superconstant sufficiency for physical constant are formulated in [1, 2]. The first principle of superconstant
sufficiency is: "In the base of dimensional fundamental physical constants lie the constants of universal superconstants hu, lu,
tu,
,
group". It is an equivalent formulation: "Values of dimensional fundamental
physical constant can be received by calculation, using universal superconstants hu, lu, tu,
,
".
The second principle of superconstant sufficiency is: "In the base of all dimensionless fundamental physical constants lie two
superconstants
and
". It is an equivalent formulation: "All dimensionless fundamental
physical constants can be received by calculation, using two superconstants
and
".
So, five superconstants hu, lu, tu,
,
are truly fundamental. They have ontological status. The conclusion is, that it was no
reason to call other physical constants fundamental
2. Kosinov N. Five Fundamental Constants of Vacuum, Lying in the Base of all Physical Laws, Constants and Formulas // Physical Vacuum and Nature. v 2000.  N4.  Я. 96  102.
4. Kosinov N. V., Kosinova Z. N. GENERAL CORRELATION AMONG FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICAL CONSTANTS // Journal of New Energy. v 2000.  Vol. 5. v ¦ 1. v Pp. 134 135.
6. Peter J., Taylor M. N., Taylor B. N. CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants: 1998 // Reviews of Modern Physihs. v 2000.  Vol 72.  No. 2.  www.physics.nist.gov/constants (Constants in the category "All constants")
10. Carter J. The Other Theory of Physics.  Washington, 1994.
12. John Baez. How Many Fundamental Constants Are There?  http://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/constants.html
13. Johnson G. 10 Physics Questions to Ponder for a Millennium or Two // New York Times. v 2000.  Aug. 15
14. Gross D. Millennium Madness: Physics Problems for the Next Millenium.  Strings 2000 conference at University of Michigan. v 2000.  July 1015

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